THE DECLARATION OF ARBROATH

DECLARATION OF SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE 1320

HOME

HISTORY

OF THE MANUSCRIPT

HISTORY

OF THE ENGRAVER

ORDER PRINTS

SHOP

CONTACT US

 

 

SEALS

 

Duncan, Earl of Fife


He was a youth of 17 years, held in England

as a ward of court, when Robert the Bruce

was crowned King of Scots on 25th March 1306 at Scone Abbey. His elder sister, Isabel, Countess of Buchan, had ridden through the night to Scone to perform the hereditary rite

of crowning the king on her brother's behalf.

Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, Lord of Man and Annandale

 

From his seal of 1296, when he swore fealty to Edward I, he bore three lozenges or cushion lozenge-wise. His father, also Thomas, had been married a half sister of the Bruce and at some stage after the the coronation of 1306 he added the double tressure around the cushions

Sir Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March.


Seal Attached : A shield of arms: A lion rampant within a bordure charged with eleven roses. The shield within a rounded and pointed trefoil panel.


Legend : S : PATRICII DE DV[NBAR] COMITIS MARC'


Sir Patrick used a number of seals throughout his life. There is some doubt as to whether the roses are semy because they vary in number according to which seal one looks at

Malisa, Earl of Strathearn


Seal Attached : On horseback to sinister, a knight in hauberk and plumed helmet with sword and shield bearing arms: Two chevronels. Horse plumed and armorially caparisoned.


Legend : S' MALISII COMIT' DE


He was married to Agnes elder daughter and co-heiress of Magnus Earl of Caithness and died before 1329.

Malcolm, Earl of Lennox


Seal Attached : A saltire between four roses.


Legend : S' MALCOLMI : COMITIS:DE:LEV[ENAX]


Malcolm fifth Earl of Lennox married a daughter of Christian Bruce (the king's sister) and sister of Donald earl of Mar. He died at the battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. His father, who died in the very early 1290s was an early adherent of the Bruce cause. His brother-in-law, Donald earl of Mar was regent of Scotland after Robert I's death, but did not sign the Declaration of Arbroath, as he was ill with a cold.

Magnus, Earl of Caithness and Orkney


The last reference to Magnus earl of Caithness is his signature of the Declaration of Arbroath. He was certainly dead by 1329, leaving two co-heiresses, Agnes the elder, married to the earl of Strathearn and Margaret the younger, married to Sir Simon Fraser of Brotherton, from whom the family of Lovat descend.

William, Earl of Sutherland

Walter, Steward of Scotland


James fifth Steward had been an early adherent of the Bruce cause, both by his relationship to Robert, whose grandmother was a Stewart, but also by being brother in law to James Douglas. Walter sixth High Steward of Scotland had married Marjory Bruce, the king's daughter by his first marriage in 1315. He was born in 1293, so was only 27 at this time. Widowed, he died in 1326 leaving an only son who became King Robert II.

William Soules, Butler of Scotland

 

Seal Attached : A knight on horseback to the sinister with sword and shield. Arms on the caparaison of the horse: Barry of six.

 

Legend : SIGILLVM:WILELMI:D......S......


His father, Sir John Soulis, had been one of the unsuccessful claimants to the throne in 1292 tracing his decent from an illegitimate half sister of Alexander III. Sit William was to have been put on the throne if the plot to murder the Bruce had been successful. Seized at Berwick shortly after the signing of the Letter, he quickly confessed and was imprisoned for life along with his aunt, Agnes Comyn, Countess of Strathearn.

James, Lord of Douglas


The Good Sir James was Bruce's staunchest supporter in his fight to rid Scotland of the English. He was the son of Sir William Douglas of Douglas, le Hardi by his wife Elizabeth Stewart daughter of Alexander 4th High Steward. He succeeded his father in 1298. After the death of the king in 1329, he took Bruce's heart on a crusade, to fulfil the king's promise to crusade. He died in 1330 while fighting the Moors in Spain. The red heart now born by Douglas was granted as an honourable augmentation in recognition of this. It is considered that the three stars on the blue chief represent an agnatic connection with the Moray family (see Alan Murray infra).

Roger Mowbray


Seal Attached : A lion rampant.


Legend : [SI]GILLVM:REGERI:DE:MOVBR…


Implicated in the plot to murder the Bruce shortly after the Letter was signed, He died before 4th August 1320 when the Black Parliament was called to try the conspirators. His corpse was brought before the judges on a litter. Found guilty of treason he body was threatened with mutilation but the King intervened and he was allowed a decent burial.

 

David, Lord of Brechin

 

Seal Attached : Being the seal of his second wife, Maria Ramsay : Three shields, with their bases to centre within a cusped trefoil, bearing arms : Dexter Shield: Three piles in point

(Brechin). Sinister shield : Three garbs (Cumming). Upper shield : An eagle displayed (Ramsay)


Legend
: S: MARIE:DE:RAMS:..


A perpetual turncoat he displayed a pattern of disloyalty throughout his career. Was on the English side at Bannockburnand captured after the battle. Swore fealty to the Bruce but was one of the main conspirators it the plot to murder the king only weeks after the Letter was signed. Found guilty he was drawn through the streets of Perth behind horses hung and then beheaded.

David Graham


Seal Attached : A shield of Arms : On a chief three escallops. Shield suspended from a tree of three branches. On the reverse of the seal, a boar head couped erect

.
Legend : S'DAVIT: DE:GRAHAM:

John Menteith, Guardian of the Earldom of Menteith

Sir Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser

Great Chamberlain of Scotland

Seal Attached : A knight on horseback to the sinister in armour with a fan-plumed helmet, sword chained to shoulder, and shield bearing arms : six fraises (3,2 and 1). The horse is armorially caparisoned.


Legend : Within a cusped circle : S' : ALEXANDRI : FRASER : MILITIS


He married in 1316, as her second husband, Mary Bruce, the King's sister. He was killed fighting Edward Balliol at the Battle of Dupplin in 1332. The Frasers of Touchfraser ended in an heiress who married Sir William Keith Mariscal in 1351; this line ended in an heiress who married a Gordon, wherefore the Gordons of Huntley bear a Fraser quarter. Sir Alexander's younger son's line continued in Philorth, subsequently becoming Lords Saltoun. The arms are 'fraises' or strawberries, canting on the name, or perhaps the name canted on the arms, originally either five or six, by later three fraises, two and one.

Sir Gilbert Hay of Errol, Constable of Scotland


Seal Attached : On a shield three escutcheons. Scroll ornament at top and sides of the shield.


Legend : S………DE:LE:HAY

Sir Robert Keith, Marischal of Scotland

Sir Henry St.Clair of Roslyn


He was the son of William St Clair who had died as King Edward's prisoner in the Tower of London about 1299. Sir Henry was married to Alice de Fenton. He was dead by 1335.

John Graham


Probably John de Graham of Dalkeith and Abercorn son of Nicholas of Dalkeith.

Sir David Lindsay, Lord of Crawfurd

Son of Sir Alexander Lindsay a supporter of Wallace and the Bruce. Sir David was custodian of Edinburgh and Berwick castles. He married in 1325 the widow of Sir Andrew Leslie, Mary Abernethy. He died in 1355.

Sir William Oliphant

 

Seal Attached : A shield, three crescents.


Legend : …: WILLELMI:OLIFAVN:


Under King John Balliol and the Guardians, Sir William Oliphant had been the commander of Stirling Castle. Falling in to the hands of the English in 1304 he spent four and a half years in prison until he consented to fight against the Bruce. He was installed as commander of the Perth Garrison. The garrison was overrun by the Bruce and the loyal Scots in January 1313. He joined the Bruce there after and remained loyal.

Sir Patrick Graham


Seal Attached : A shield of Arms : On a fess three escallops. Shield within a pointed quatrefoil panel.


Legend : SIGILLVM : PA….CII : GRA...

John Fenton

Must be assumed to be the successor of Sir William, Lord of Fenton, who married Cecilia heiress of Sir William Bisset of Lovat. Sir William was one of the auditors of the claims of Balliol and Bruce in 1296 at Berwick, when the English king Edward I adjudicated between the claimants.

William Abernethy

Sir David Wemyss

Son of the 1296 homager, Sir Michael Wemyss, a supporter of John Balliol. Sir David married firstly Annabella St Clair, widow of Sir Robert Bissett and secondly before 1304 Margery daughter of Sir Walter Ramsey. He died in 1332.

William Mushet

Fergus of Ardrossan

Sir Eustace Maxwell of Caerlaverock.


The Maxwells were strident supporters of King John (Balliol) and much in league with the English, but this not suprising as their lands in Dumfries were often in English hands. Eustace's father John and grandfather Herbert both swore fealty to Edward I in 1296 (Ragman Roll), the latter with an armorial seal depicting a saltire. Eustace succeeded his father John de Maxwell about 1312 and switched his support to the Bruce shortly before Bannockburn. Probably a willing signatory of the letter because the fortunes of his lands were so much dictated by the English just across the border. He was implicated in the plot to murder the King only five months later, he was however, acquitted along with Sir Patrick Graham.

Sir William Ramsey of Dalhousie


He was also a homager in 1296

Sir William Mowat

Did homage to Edward I at St Andrews in March 1304 but was solidly in the Bruce's party by 1306 remaining loyal through out the rest of his life.

Alan Murray of Culbin


Seal Attached : A shield of arms : Three stars. Shield suspended by guige, wyverns at sides.


Legend : S'ALANI DE… Beaded borders.


Seems to have been a cousin of Sir William Murray of St Fort. he held lands in Fife and Forres.

Donald Campbell

He seems to be the younger son of Colin Campbell. His elder brother, Sir Neil Campbell, was Colin's successor but was dead by 1315, so Donald may have been the next in line as head of the House of Campbell.

John Cameron


Most probably the son of Robert Cameron of Balnely whose Ragman Roll seal bore three bars.

Sir Reginald Cheyne


Seal Attached : A shield of arms: On a bend, between 6 crosses crosslets fitchée, three eagles displayed (quite distinct large eagles filling up all the bend)


Legend : ……….:LE:CHE:

Sir Alexander Seton


Seal Attached : A shield of arms: On a bend three crescents. The shield marked with coarse oblique crossing lines.


Legend : S'ALEXANDRI: SETON

He was the son of the executed Sir Chrisopher Seton by Christina, sister of the Bruce. He probably did not change his arms to the traditionally recognised Seton coat of Or three crescents within a double tressure flory counter-flory Gules until after 1322.

Andrew Leslie


He was heir of Sir Norman Leslie of that Ilk, Sheriff of Aberdeen and homager of 1296. (dead by 1317) Sir Andrew married Maria the younger daughter and co-heiress of Alexander of Abernethy in 1317 gaining lands in Fife and Forfar. He was dead by 1324.

Alexander Straiton

Alexander Lamberton


Seal Attached : A shield of arms : Three escallops inverted


Legend : S ALAXAN': DE:LAMB'TV

Probably a near relative of William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews.

Sir Edward Keith of Synton


Seal Attached : A shield of arms : On a chief three pallets, over all a bend. Lozenge diaper on chief and on background.


Legend : SIGILLVM : EDWARDI : DE : KE


Succeeded his brother as Great Marischal of Scotland in1346, died 1351.

John of Inchmartin

Lord of that Ilk


Seal Attached : A shield of arms : Billetté, a lion rampant. Shield between two wyverns.


Legend : S'JOHANNIS DE HINCMARTIN

His father, Sir David de Inchmartin, was at the coronation of the Bruce in March, 1306 but was captured by the English after the Battle of Methven in June of the same year. He was hanged, without trial at Newcastle shortly after. A Sir Henry Inchmartin, Lord of that Ilk, bore circa 1305, a lion rampant. So John's coat, with the billetty field may represent a differencing as Sir Henry may well have still been the head of the family at the time of the signing of the letter. Sir John was Sheriff of Perth in 1328 and was killed at Durham in 1346.

Proposed Arms : Argent billetty Sable a lion rampant of the second armed and langued Gules.

Thomas Menzies


Seal Attached : A shield of arms : A chief dancettée (of four teeth). Shield between three wyverns.

Legend : S'THOME D' MEINERIS

John Durant

Thomas Morham